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我們的位置:首頁 - 花城珠江電纜講講銅冶煉渣的選礦技術和難點
發布時間:2023.12.11 新聞來源:珠江電纜_廣州花城珠江電纜有限公司 瀏覽次數:

1.銅鍛煉渣的品種

在火法銅鍛煉進程中,一般經過熔煉、吹煉、精粹三個工序產出粗銅或陽極銅,陽極銅經過電解精粹成為電解銅。吹煉渣回來熔煉工序,精粹渣回來吹煉工序;熔煉渣、吹煉渣有的工廠依據工藝需求裝備火法貧化工序,因而會發生貧化渣。熔煉爐選用的傳統設備為鼓風爐、反射爐、電爐等,新建的現代化大型銅鍛煉廠多選用比較先進的工藝,歸納起來有兩類,一類是懸浮熔煉工藝,比方祥光銅業的旋浮熔煉、奧托昆普的閃速熔煉、INCO氧氣閃速熔煉和德國KHD公司的CONTOP接連頂吹熔煉等;請關注花城珠江電纜另一類是熔池熔煉工藝,比方諾蘭達熔煉法(fa)、三(san)菱法(fa)、瓦紐科夫(fu)法(fa)、艾薩法(fa)和(he)白銀法(fa)等。吹煉爐(lu)以選(xuan)用(yong)臥式(shi)轉(zhuan)爐(lu)為主,少(shao)數選(xuan)用(yong)虹吸式(shi)轉(zhuan)爐(lu)、三(san)菱法(fa)吹煉爐(lu)和(he)接連吹煉爐(lu)。由奧托昆普(pu)和(he)肯尼科特一起研(yan)(yan)制的閃速吹煉、祥光銅業研(yan)(yan)制旋(xuan)浮吹煉現已成(cheng)功用(yong)于(yu)工業化出(chu)產(chan),正(zheng)逐漸開展(zhan)成(cheng)為干流趨(qu)勢。精粹廣泛選(xuan)用(yong)回(hui)轉(zhuan)式(shi)精粹爐(lu),只需極少(shao)數選(xuan)用(yong)反(fan)射爐(lu)。

銅(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)又(you)稱(cheng)銅(tong)(tong)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha),按處理辦法(fa)不同分為(wei)火(huo)法(fa)銅(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)和濕法(fa)銅(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha),火(huo)法(fa)銅(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)又(you)稱(cheng)銅(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)或銅(tong)(tong)冶金爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha),濕法(fa)銅(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)又(you)稱(cheng)銅(tong)(tong)浸出(chu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)或銅(tong)(tong)浸渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)。依照(zhao)火(huo)法(fa)鍛(duan)(duan)煉工藝(yi)又(you)分為(wei)熔(rong)煉渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、吹(chui)煉渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、精粹渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)和貧化(hua)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha),依照(zhao)設備不同分為(wei)鼓風爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、閃(shan)速(su)爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、電爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、轉(zhuan)爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)和反射爐(lu)(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)等。依據渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)冷(leng)卻(que)(que)辦法(fa)不同,分為(wei)水(shui)淬渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、天然冷(leng)卻(que)(que)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、保溫冷(leng)卻(que)(que)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)、渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)包緩冷(leng)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)和鑄(zhu)(zhu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)機鑄(zhu)(zhu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)(zha)等。

銅鍛煉爐渣(zha)的(de)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)火法(fa)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)和(he)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua),火法(fa)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)多(duo)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)電爐法(fa)和(he)反射爐法(fa),此外還有真空(kong)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)法(fa)、渣(zha)桶法(fa)、熔(rong)鹽提取法(fa)等。火法(fa)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)發(fa)生的(de)爐渣(zha)即為棄(qi)渣(zha)。熔(rong)煉渣(zha)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)火法(fa)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)的(de)較多(duo),只(zhi)需少數選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)。而吹(chui)煉渣(zha)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)的(de)較多(duo),許多(duo)工(gong)廠不再回(hui)來(lai)熔(rong)煉爐。近(jin)年來(lai),因為銅鍛煉爐渣(zha)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)工(gong)藝具有成(cheng)本低、作用(yong)好、節能環(huan)保等十分顯著的(de)工(gong)業(ye)優(you)勢,現已逐(zhu)漸呈現出(chu)替代火法(fa)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)工(gong)藝的(de)開展趨勢。現在選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)的(de)爐渣(zha)有熔(rong)煉渣(zha)、吹(chui)煉渣(zha)、貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)渣(zha)。

2. 銅鍛煉渣的性(xing)質與物相組成

銅鍛煉(lian)爐(lu)渣是(shi)火法冶(ye)金(jin)的(de)(de)一種(zhong)產品,其組成(cheng)首要來自礦石、熔劑、還原劑灰(hui)分(fen)(fen)中的(de)(de)造渣成(cheng)分(fen)(fen),成(cheng)分(fen)(fen)十分(fen)(fen)雜亂。但總的(de)(de)來說,爐(lu)渣是(shi)各種(zhong)氧(yang)化(hua)物(wu)的(de)(de)熔體,這類氧(yang)化(hua)物(wu)在不(bu)同的(de)(de)組成(cheng)和溫(wen)度條件下能夠(gou)構成(cheng)化(hua)合物(wu)、有(you)少(shao)數硫(liu)(liu)化(hua)物(wu)、氮化(hua)物(wu)、硫(liu)(liu)酸鹽(yan)(yan)等。這些(xie)鹽(yan)(yan)有(you)的(de)(de)來自質料,有(you)的(de)(de)是(shi)作為助熔劑參加的(de)(de)。

一般情況下,吹煉(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)含(han)(han)(han)(han)銅(tong)(tong)檔次(ci)較(jiao)高,其次(ci)是(shi)熔煉(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha),熔煉(lian)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)經過貧化的貧化渣(zha)(zha)(zha)檔次(ci)最低,一般在1%以下。銅(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)煉(lian)爐(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)多呈黑色(se)或(huo)是(shi)褐色(se),外表有(you)(you)金(jin)屬光(guang)澤,內(nei)部結(jie)構根本上為玻(bo)璃體,結(jie)構細(xi)密、硬而脆,化學成分比較(jiao)雜亂,爐(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)中(zhong)以鐵(tie)(tie)、二氧化硅、氧化鈣、氧化鋁(lv)的含(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)較(jiao)高,占60%以上。因(yin)為銅(tong)(tong)礦來歷不(bu)同(tong)(tong),除了含(han)(han)(han)(han)銅(tong)(tong)外,還含(han)(han)(han)(han)有(you)(you)鈷、鎳(nie)等(deng)有(you)(you)價元素(su),一般還含(han)(han)(han)(han)有(you)(you)鉛、鋅(xin)、金(jin)、銀等(deng)有(you)(you)價金(jin)屬,但含(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)較(jiao)低。從(cong)含(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)規(gui)(gui)模來看,鐵(tie)(tie)含(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)約為30~45%,銅(tong)(tong)含(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)有(you)(you)的在低于1%,歸(gui)于貧銅(tong)(tong)礦規(gui)(gui)模,有(you)(you)的介乎(hu)于1~2%,歸(gui)于中(zhong)等(deng)銅(tong)(tong)礦規(gui)(gui)模,有(you)(you)的在2%以上,歸(gui)于富銅(tong)(tong)礦規(gui)(gui)模。礦藏組(zu)成中(zhong)絕大大都是(shi)鐵(tie)(tie)橄欖石,其次(ci)是(shi)磁鐵(tie)(tie)礦,還有(you)(you)少數(shu)脈石組(zu)成的玻(bo)璃體;其間的銅(tong)(tong)礦藏,因(yin)為鍛(duan)煉(lian)工藝不(bu)同(tong)(tong),則(ze)以氧化銅(tong)(tong)、硫化銅(tong)(tong)、金(jin)屬銅(tong)(tong)、化合銅(tong)(tong)等(deng)方式以及不(bu)同(tong)(tong)的含(han)(han)(han)(han)量(liang)散(san)布于爐(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)之中(zhong)。此(ci)外,單(dan)個鍛(duan)煉(lian)廠因(yin)處理的銅(tong)(tong)礦石質料特別,發生(sheng)的爐(lu)渣(zha)(zha)(zha)中(zhong)含(han)(han)(han)(han)有(you)(you)金(jin)、銀、鈷等(deng)能夠收回的有(you)(you)價金(jin)屬。

銅(tong)鍛(duan)煉(lian)渣(zha)從廣義(yi)上看(kan)是(shi)(shi)一(yi)種“人工礦(kuang)石(shi)”,它的(de)(de)(de)物(wu)(wu)質組成(cheng)(cheng)結構是(shi)(shi)隨鍛(duan)煉(lian)進程(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)條件不同而有(you)所不同。銅(tong)鍛(duan)煉(lian)渣(zha)是(shi)(shi)一(yi)種組成(cheng)(cheng)較(jiao)為(wei)(wei)(wei)雜亂(luan)的(de)(de)(de)物(wu)(wu)質,一(yi)般含有(you)5~6種或更多種氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)物(wu)(wu)及各(ge)種硫化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)物(wu)(wu)、硫酸(suan)鹽(yan)(yan)(yan)以(yi)及其他微量成(cheng)(cheng)分。外觀一(yi)般為(wei)(wei)(wei)黑色(se)或黑綠色(se)、細密(mi)堅固,比重約為(wei)(wei)(wei)4,渣(zha)中含量最多的(de)(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)鐵(tie)和(he)硅(gui)(gui)(gui),首(shou)要(yao)礦(kuang)藏(zang)為(wei)(wei)(wei)鐵(tie)橄欖石(shi)和(he)磁鐵(tie)礦(kuang)及少數(shu)的(de)(de)(de)磁黃鐵(tie)礦(kuang),硅(gui)(gui)(gui)大部分造渣(zha)生(sheng)成(cheng)(cheng)鐵(tie)的(de)(de)(de)硅(gui)(gui)(gui)酸(suan)鹽(yan)(yan)(yan),并有(you)少數(shu)的(de)(de)(de)硅(gui)(gui)(gui)呈(cheng)硅(gui)(gui)(gui)灰石(shi)及不透明的(de)(de)(de)玻璃(li)體;其次為(wei)(wei)(wei)銅(tong)的(de)(de)(de)硫化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)物(wu)(wu)、金屬銅(tong)和(he)少數(shu)的(de)(de)(de)氧(yang)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)銅(tong)等;還含有(you)極少數(shu)的(de)(de)(de)金、銀(yin)、鎳(nie)、鈷等有(you)價成(cheng)(cheng)分,首(shou)要(yao)散布(bu)在磁性鐵(tie)化(hua)(hua)(hua)(hua)合物(wu)(wu)和(he)鐵(tie)的(de)(de)(de)硅(gui)(gui)(gui)酸(suan)鹽(yan)(yan)(yan)中,以(yi)亞鐵(tie)硅(gui)(gui)(gui)酸(suan)鹽(yan)(yan)(yan)或硅(gui)(gui)(gui)酸(suan)鹽(yan)(yan)(yan)方式存在。

爐(lu)渣(zha)中的(de)銅(tong)(tong)多呈硫化(hua)物形狀存在(zai),首要有似方輝銅(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)、輝銅(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)、黃(huang)銅(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)、似斑銅(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)和金屬銅(tong)(tong)等。銅(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)藏(zang)在(zai)渣(zha)中常(chang)與(yu)鐵橄(gan)欖(lan)石(shi)基(ji)體和磁鐵礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)嵌(qian)布在(zai)一(yi)起,或(huo)呈球狀被磁鐵礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)所包(bao)裹。有的(de)則是(shi)銅(tong)(tong)鐵礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)藏(zang)一(yi)起構(gou)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)斑狀結構(gou)與(yu)鐵橄(gan)欖(lan)石(shi)基(ji)體中,或(huo)數(shu)種銅(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)藏(zang)嵌(qian)布共生。銅(tong)(tong)渣(zha)中的(de)銅(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)藏(zang)和鐵礦(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)(kuang)藏(zang)的(de)粒度大小則隨爐(lu)渣(zha)的(de)冷卻條件和爐(lu)渣(zha)組分(fen)不同而有著(zhu)很大的(de)差(cha)異。爐(lu)渣(zha)中鐵與(yu)氧有較強的(de)親和力,構(gou)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)氧化(hua)鐵,其間一(yi)部分(fen)與(yu)渣(zha)中的(de)二氧化(hua)硅構(gou)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)低(di)熔點的(de)鐵橄(gan)欖(lan)石(shi),即爐(lu)渣(zha)的(de)基(ji)體,占爐(lu)渣(zha)總(zong)鐵量的(de)28%以(yi)上(shang),其余部分(fen)則是(shi)Fe304,占爐(lu)渣(zha)總(zong)鐵量的(de)30%以(yi)上(shang),尚有少數(shu)Fe2O3、FeS。渣(zha)中二氧化(hua)硅除與(yu)FeO構(gou)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)鐵橄(gan)欖(lan)石(shi)外,還(huan)與(yu)CaO等構(gou)成(cheng)(cheng)(cheng)少數(shu)的(de)硅灰石(shi)和玻璃相。

銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)渣(zha)的(de)典型成(cheng)分(fen)為(wei)Fe:29~40%、SiO2:30~40%、Al2O3: ≤10%、CaO: ≤11%、Cu: 0.42~4.6%;不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)的(de)鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)辦法其(qi)組成(cheng)有所不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong),不(bu)(bu)同(tong)(tong)熔(rong)煉(lian)爐(lu)渣(zha)中(zhong)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)、鐵物相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)組成(cheng)和(he)含量也各不(bu)(bu)相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)同(tong)(tong)。熔(rong)煉(lian)爐(lu)渣(zha)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)檔次(ci)處(chu)于(yu)(yu)0.76~4.58%、鐵檔次(ci)40.92~45.99%之間(jian)(jian)(jian)。銅(tong)(tong)(tong)熔(rong)煉(lian)渣(zha)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)物相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)中(zhong)首(shou)要以(yi)(yi)(yi)硫化銅(tong)(tong)(tong)為(wei)主,絕大(da)大(da)都占到(dao)總銅(tong)(tong)(tong)散布(bu)率的(de)60%以(yi)(yi)(yi)上,最(zui)高(gao)抵達(da)(da)(da)87.13%,其(qi)次(ci)為(wei)氧化銅(tong)(tong)(tong)和(he)金屬(shu)銅(tong)(tong)(tong),氧化銅(tong)(tong)(tong)則處(chu)于(yu)(yu)5~60%之間(jian)(jian)(jian),最(zui)高(gao)可達(da)(da)(da)56.55%;金屬(shu)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)則處(chu)于(yu)(yu)9~25%之間(jian)(jian)(jian),金屬(shu)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)高(gao)達(da)(da)(da)20.31%;單個爐(lu)渣(zha)其(qi)它銅(tong)(tong)(tong)抵達(da)(da)(da)10%以(yi)(yi)(yi)上。鐵物相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)中(zhong)以(yi)(yi)(yi)鐵橄欖(lan)石和(he)磁鐵礦為(wei)主,二者之和(he)占到(dao)總鐵散布(bu)率的(de)80%以(yi)(yi)(yi)上;其(qi)間(jian)(jian)(jian)鐵橄欖(lan)石處(chu)于(yu)(yu)8~65%之間(jian)(jian)(jian),最(zui)高(gao)達(da)(da)(da)62.14%;磁鐵礦則處(chu)于(yu)(yu)33~45%之間(jian)(jian)(jian),最(zui)高(gao)達(da)(da)(da)44.09%;單個赤褐鐵礦散布(bu)率較高(gao),抵達(da)(da)(da)57.43%。

吹(chui)煉爐渣(zha)(zha)以(yi)轉爐渣(zha)(zha)為主,轉爐渣(zha)(zha)是(shi)(shi)冰銅(tong)經轉爐吹(chui)煉而產出爐渣(zha)(zha)。轉爐渣(zha)(zha)外(wai)(wai)觀(guan)成黑色和黑中(zhong)(zhong)透綠,性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)脆、堅(jian)固(gu)、結構細(xi)(xi)密(mi)(mi),密(mi)(mi)度約為4~4.5t/m3,渣(zha)(zha)中(zhong)(zhong)元(yuan)素(su)含量最多的(de)是(shi)(shi)鐵和硅,它們都以(yi)化(hua)合態方(fang)式存在于渣(zha)(zha)中(zhong)(zhong),首要(yao)成分(fen)是(shi)(shi)鐵橄欖石和磁鐵礦。水淬銅(tong)渣(zha)(zha)是(shi)(shi)一(yi)(yi)種黑色、細(xi)(xi)密(mi)(mi)、堅(jian)固(gu)、耐磨的(de)玻璃相(xiang),外(wai)(wai)觀(guan)呈粒(li)狀和條狀,攙雜(za)有(you)少(shao)數的(de)針片狀,外(wai)(wai)表有(you)金屬光澤,顆粒(li)形狀不規則,棱(leng)角清楚(chu),密(mi)(mi)度3.3~4.5t/m3,松懈密(mi)(mi)度為1.6~2.0 t/m3。,孔隙(xi)率為50%左(zuo)右,細(xi)(xi)度模數為3.37~4.52,屬粗砂(sha)型(xing)渣(zha)(zha)。此外(wai)(wai),爐渣(zha)(zha)中(zhong)(zhong)含有(you)微量的(de)有(you)毒(du)(du)元(yuan)素(su)、毒(du)(du)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)有(you)機物、放(fang)射性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)物質,不具有(you)浸出性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)毒(du)(du)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、腐蝕(shi)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)、放(fang)射性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)及急性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)毒(du)(du)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)中(zhong)(zhong)的(de)任何(he)一(yi)(yi)種以(yi)上的(de),為一(yi)(yi)般固(gu)體(ti)廢(fei)物,能夠進行開發性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)研討。因(yin)為工藝條件不同,物相(xiang)組成也存在必定的(de)差異。

吹煉轉(zhuan)爐渣銅(tong)檔(dang)次處(chu)于(yu)(yu)1.74~7.26%、鐵(tie)(tie)檔(dang)次49.45~53.59%之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)間。銅(tong)轉(zhuan)爐渣銅(tong)物相中首(shou)要以(yi)硫化(hua)(hua)銅(tong)和(he)(he)金(jin)屬銅(tong)為主,二者之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)和(he)(he)占(zhan)到總(zong)(zong)銅(tong)散布率(lv)的(de)78%以(yi)上(shang);其間硫化(hua)(hua)銅(tong)處(chu)于(yu)(yu)44~96%之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)間,最(zui)高(gao)可(ke)(ke)達(da)90.4%;金(jin)屬銅(tong)則處(chu)于(yu)(yu)15~36%之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)間,最(zui)高(gao)達(da)35.14%;氧化(hua)(hua)銅(tong)則處(chu)于(yu)(yu)10~20%之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)間,最(zui)高(gao)可(ke)(ke)達(da)19.82%。鐵(tie)(tie)物相中以(yi)鐵(tie)(tie)橄(gan)(gan)欖石和(he)(he)磁鐵(tie)(tie)礦為主,二者之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)和(he)(he)占(zhan)到總(zong)(zong)鐵(tie)(tie)散布率(lv)的(de)50%以(yi)上(shang);鐵(tie)(tie)橄(gan)(gan)欖石處(chu)于(yu)(yu)8~70%之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)間,最(zui)高(gao)可(ke)(ke)達(da)69.88%;磁鐵(tie)(tie)礦處(chu)于(yu)(yu)26~80%之(zhi)(zhi)(zhi)間,最(zui)高(gao)抵達(da)78.18%。

3. 銅鍛煉(lian)渣的選礦辦法

銅鍛煉(lian)爐(lu)渣(zha)在大大都(dou)情況(kuang)下含(han)有可收回(hui)的(de)黑色金(jin)(jin)屬(shu)、有色金(jin)(jin)屬(shu)以及(ji)稀貴(gui)金(jin)(jin)屬(shu)等,往(wang)往(wang)是成分改(gai)變很大的(de)混合物(wu)。假如想收回(hui)銅鍛煉(lian)爐(lu)渣(zha)中的(de)各種(zhong)有價礦(kuang)藏,能(neng)夠(gou)選(xuan)用(yong)多(duo)種(zhong)選(xuan)礦(kuang)辦(ban)法(fa)(fa)(fa)。詳細的(de)爐(lu)渣(zha)選(xuan)礦(kuang)辦(ban)法(fa)(fa)(fa)應(ying)依(yi)據(ju)爐(lu)渣(zha)性(xing)質和可收回(hui)金(jin)(jin)屬(shu)的(de)品種(zhong)而定。總的(de)說來,銅鍛煉(lian)爐(lu)渣(zha)的(de)選(xuan)礦(kuang)辦(ban)法(fa)(fa)(fa)包(bao)含(han)浮游選(xuan)礦(kuang)、磁(ci)力(li)選(xuan)礦(kuang)、重力(li)選(xuan)礦(kuang)、化學選(xuan)礦(kuang)以及(ji)聯合選(xuan)礦(kuang)等多(duo)種(zhong)選(xuan)礦(kuang)辦(ban)法(fa)(fa)(fa)。以上每種(zhong)選(xuan)礦(kuang)辦(ban)法(fa)(fa)(fa)又(you)依(yi)據(ju)詳細的(de)流程和設備的(de)不同組合分為更多(duo)的(de)選(xuan)礦(kuang)辦(ban)法(fa)(fa)(fa)。

含(han)(han)(han)有(you)(you)有(you)(you)色金屬(shu)的(de)(de)銅鍛煉(lian)爐(lu)渣(zha)中(zhong)的(de)(de)礦(kuang)(kuang)藏(zang)(zang)(zang)一般可(ke)浮性(xing)(xing)強,多選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)浮游(you)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)法(fa)對有(you)(you)色金屬(shu)進(jin)(jin)行(xing)收回(hui)(hui),比(bi)方(fang)含(han)(han)(han)有(you)(you)銅、鉛、鋅等金屬(shu)的(de)(de)鍛煉(lian)爐(lu)渣(zha)均選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)浮選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)辦(ban)法(fa)。有(you)(you)的(de)(de)爐(lu)渣(zha)含(han)(han)(han)有(you)(you)氧化(hua)(hua)(hua)銅、金屬(shu)銅、金、銀(yin)礦(kuang)(kuang)藏(zang)(zang)(zang),除了(le)浮選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)外(wai),依據銅、金、銀(yin)等礦(kuang)(kuang)藏(zang)(zang)(zang)比(bi)重(zhong)(zhong)差(cha)異和(he)化(hua)(hua)(hua)學(xue)(xue)(xue)特(te)性(xing)(xing)則能夠(gou)(gou)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)重(zhong)(zhong)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)或許化(hua)(hua)(hua)學(xue)(xue)(xue)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)的(de)(de)辦(ban)法(fa)進(jin)(jin)行(xing)處理(li)。有(you)(you)的(de)(de)銅鍛煉(lian)爐(lu)渣(zha)中(zhong)含(han)(han)(han)有(you)(you)鐵和(he)鈷礦(kuang)(kuang)藏(zang)(zang)(zang),因為均具有(you)(you)較強的(de)(de)磁性(xing)(xing),能夠(gou)(gou)挑選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)磁選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)辦(ban)法(fa)進(jin)(jin)行(xing)收回(hui)(hui)。含(han)(han)(han)有(you)(you)稀(xi)貴金屬(shu)礦(kuang)(kuang)藏(zang)(zang)(zang)的(de)(de)鍛煉(lian)爐(lu)渣(zha)一般依據金屬(shu)礦(kuang)(kuang)藏(zang)(zang)(zang)的(de)(de)比(bi)重(zhong)(zhong)差(cha)異和(he)化(hua)(hua)(hua)學(xue)(xue)(xue)特(te)性(xing)(xing)多選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)重(zhong)(zhong)力選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)和(he)化(hua)(hua)(hua)學(xue)(xue)(xue)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)收回(hui)(hui)。比(bi)方(fang)含(han)(han)(han)金爐(lu)渣(zha)能夠(gou)(gou)用(yong)重(zhong)(zhong)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)辦(ban)法(fa)收回(hui)(hui)爐(lu)渣(zha)中(zhong)的(de)(de)金,也能夠(gou)(gou)用(yong)混汞或化(hua)(hua)(hua)學(xue)(xue)(xue)浸出等化(hua)(hua)(hua)學(xue)(xue)(xue)選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)辦(ban)法(fa)收回(hui)(hui),也能夠(gou)(gou)使用(yong)含(han)(han)(han)金礦(kuang)(kuang)藏(zang)(zang)(zang)的(de)(de)可(ke)浮性(xing)(xing)用(yong)浮選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)進(jin)(jin)行(xing)收回(hui)(hui),一般多選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)用(yong)聯合選(xuan)(xuan)(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)辦(ban)法(fa)。

現(xian)在國際規模內,依據銅鍛煉(lian)爐渣的(de)性(xing)質,使用(yong)于(yu)出產實(shi)踐(jian)的(de)、老練的(de)選(xuan)礦(kuang)工(gong)藝,根本上以銅、鐵為首(shou)要收回目標。依據礦(kuang)藏學爐渣性(xing)質特征,一般選(xuan)用(yong)浮(fu)選(xuan)和(he)磁選(xuan)的(de)選(xuan)礦(kuang)辦法(fa)。關于(yu)含有稀散(san)金(jin)屬礦(kuang)藏、難(nan)選(xuan)礦(kuang)藏的(de)爐渣,要選(xuan)用(yong)化學選(xuan)礦(kuang)或聯合選(xuan)礦(kuang)工(gong)藝來(lai)進行歸納收回處理。

4. 銅鍛煉渣選技能(neng)的重要價(jia)值和未來開展遠景

銅鍛煉渣選礦技能是一種(zhong)節能環(huan)保(bao)型技能,具(ju)有十分重要(yao)的經濟價(jia)值和環(huan)保(bao)價(jia)值。

曩(nang)昔(xi),銅(tong)鍛(duan)煉(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)轉爐渣回來熔煉(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)爐從(cong)頭(tou)熔煉(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)時,因為熔煉(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)爐渣黏性增大(da),使冰銅(tong)和爐渣別(bie)離條(tiao)件變壞(huai),導致鍛(duan)煉(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)歸(gui)納目標下降。后(hou)來,跟(gen)著國際銅(tong)冶金(jin)技能(neng)的不(bu)斷(duan)優化(hua)晉級,銅(tong)鍛(duan)煉(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)渣選礦技能(neng)在銅(tong)鍛(duan)煉(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)進程(cheng)中得(de)到使用(yong)和開展,逐漸替代了(le)(le)銅(tong)渣火法貧(pin)化(hua)工藝后(hou),渣回來量少,大(da)大(da)削(xue)減爐床占用(yong)面積(ji),消除(chu)了(le)(le)四氧化(hua)三鐵對熔煉(lian)(lian)(lian)(lian)的晦氣(qi)影(ying)響。

選(xuan)用(yong)(yong)電(dian)爐(lu)貧化(hua)(hua)工藝, 棄(qi)渣(zha)銅(tong)含量高達(da)0.5% ~0.6%,耗電(dian)抵達(da)145kW.h/t,環境(jing)污染嚴峻。芬蘭奧(ao)托昆普公司1996年(nian)曾(ceng)經選(xuan)用(yong)(yong)電(dian)爐(lu)貧化(hua)(hua)法(fa)處理(li)閃速(su)熔(rong)煉(lian)渣(zha)和(he)(he)吹(chui)煉(lian)渣(zha),棄(qi)渣(zha)含銅(tong)為(wei)0.5% ~0.7%,銅(tong)收回(hui)率為(wei)77%,而(er)改(gai)用(yong)(yong)選(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)法(fa)后,渣(zha)中含銅(tong)量為(wei)0.3~0.35%,銅(tong)收回(hui)率進步至91.1%。大冶諾蘭達(da)爐(lu)試出(chu)(chu)產時,諾蘭達(da)熔(rong)煉(lian)渣(zha)用(yong)(yong)反射(she)爐(lu)貧化(hua)(hua),棄(qi)渣(zha)含銅(tong)平均為(wei)0.73%,而(er)改(gai)用(yong)(yong)選(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)貧化(hua)(hua)后,渣(zha)含銅(tong)降到0.35%以(yi)下。銅(tong)收回(hui)率高達(da)94%以(yi)上。奧(ao)托昆普公司,用(yong)(yong)電(dian)爐(lu)貧化(hua)(hua)時的(de)電(dian)耗為(wei)90kwh/噸渣(zha),而(er)選(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)法(fa)為(wei)44.2kwh/噸渣(zha)。在節能(neng)和(he)(he)進步銅(tong)收回(hui)率方面(mian),渣(zha)選(xuan)礦(kuang)(kuang)技能(neng)與比慣例火法(fa)比較,具有節能(neng)、收回(hui)率高級杰(jie)出(chu)(chu)長處。

在(zai)環境保(bao)護(hu)和資源化(hua)(hua)方面,選礦(kuang)(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)技(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)與火(huo)法(fa)(fa)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)比較,無(wu)論是(shi)(shi)在(zai)基建(jian)投資仍(reng)是(shi)(shi)設(she)備保(bao)護(hu)上都(dou)較為低價。火(huo)法(fa)(fa)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)發生低濃度的(de)(de)(de)SO2煙氣,不能(neng)(neng)(neng)經濟地(di)處理(li)而(er)(er)直接排放到大氣中(zhong),嚴峻(jun)污染環境。而(er)(er)選礦(kuang)(kuang)法(fa)(fa)一(yi)般(ban)在(zai)常(chang)溫(wen)常(chang)壓及弱堿(jian)介質中(zhong)進行,只(zhi)需處理(li)好浮(fu)選廢(fei)水的(de)(de)(de)處理(li)及回(hui)用(yong)問(wen)題,就能(neng)(neng)(neng)夠做到對環境的(de)(de)(de)“零污染”。火(huo)法(fa)(fa)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)工(gong)藝僅(jin)限于對銅(tong)(tong)金屬的(de)(de)(de)收回(hui), 而(er)(er)渣(zha)(zha)選礦(kuang)(kuang)技(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)不只(zhi)能(neng)(neng)(neng)夠作為銅(tong)(tong)渣(zha)(zha)的(de)(de)(de)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)工(gong)藝,收回(hui)其間(jian)的(de)(de)(de)銅(tong)(tong)礦(kuang)(kuang)藏,還能(neng)(neng)(neng)夠資源化(hua)(hua)收回(hui)銅(tong)(tong)渣(zha)(zha)中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)其它有價資源。使銅(tong)(tong)鍛煉(lian)渣(zha)(zha)資源化(hua)(hua)、無(wu)害化(hua)(hua),削(xue)減(jian)占地(di)和促進企業(ye)可持續(xu)開展是(shi)(shi)我(wo)(wo)國(guo)確保(bao)企業(ye)健(jian)康開展的(de)(de)(de)根本(ben)國(guo)策,也是(shi)(shi)當今國(guo)際(ji)開展的(de)(de)(de)年(nian)代潮(chao)流。自2006年(nian)我(wo)(wo)國(guo)實施銅(tong)(tong)鍛煉(lian)職業(ye)準入準則后(hou),根本(ben)確立了(le)渣(zha)(zha)選礦(kuang)(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)技(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)在(zai)銅(tong)(tong)鍛煉(lian)職業(ye)的(de)(de)(de)重要位(wei)置,使我(wo)(wo)國(guo)銅(tong)(tong)鍛煉(lian)企業(ye)的(de)(de)(de)渣(zha)(zha)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)工(gong)藝逐漸走(zou)上了(le)選礦(kuang)(kuang)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)技(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)之路。因(yin)而(er)(er),銅(tong)(tong)鍛煉(lian)渣(zha)(zha)選礦(kuang)(kuang)技(ji)能(neng)(neng)(neng)替代火(huo)法(fa)(fa)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)(hua)工(gong)藝是(shi)(shi)年(nian)代潮(chao)流,勢不可擋。

我國(guo)是銅(tong)(tong)(tong)消費大國(guo)和銅(tong)(tong)(tong)進(jin)口大國(guo),自改革開(kai)放以(yi)(yi)來,銅(tong)(tong)(tong)產(chan)值(zhi)(zhi)一(yi)直呈迅猛(meng)增加勢態,2000年(nian)我國(guo)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)產(chan)值(zhi)(zhi)抵達132萬噸(dun)(dun),逾(yu)越智利躍居國(guo)際(ji)第(di)一(yi),2010年(nian)我國(guo)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)產(chan)值(zhi)(zhi)增加到(dao)479萬噸(dun)(dun),2020年(nian)猛(meng)增到(dao)1003噸(dun)(dun),2020年(nian)產(chan)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉渣產(chan)值(zhi)(zhi)抵達約3000多萬噸(dun)(dun)。國(guo)內銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉渣選礦(kuang)技能現已(yi)取(qu)得了巨大進(jin)步,可將銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉渣含銅(tong)(tong)(tong)檔次下降到(dao)0.25%以(yi)(yi)下,抵達國(guo)際(ji)領先水(shui)平。依(yi)照(zhao)每年(nian)國(guo)產(chan)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉渣3000多萬噸(dun)(dun)核(he)算,經(jing)過銅(tong)(tong)(tong)鍛(duan)(duan)煉渣選礦(kuang)技能處理,每將銅(tong)(tong)(tong)渣檔次下降0.1個百(bai)分點,依(yi)照(zhao)銅(tong)(tong)(tong)現價58000元/噸(dun)(dun)核(he)算,將會多發明約17.4億元的經(jing)濟效益;銅(tong)(tong)(tong)渣中含有近40%左右的鐵,假如多收回1個百(bai)分點的鐵,其發明的財富也(ye)相當(dang)可觀。

在銅(tong)鍛(duan)煉爐渣中含(han)有銅(tong)、鐵(tie)(tie)、鈷、鎳(nie)、鉛(qian)、鋅和(he)硅等很多的(de)有價元素。現在國家的(de)銅(tong)資源嚴峻(jun)不(bu)足,對國外礦(kuang)藏構成(cheng)嚴峻(jun)依靠,我(wo)國鋼(gang)鐵(tie)(tie)工(gong)業(ye)開展(zhan)迅速,對鐵(tie)(tie)礦(kuang)石需求激增(zeng),而國內(nei)供應卻(que)遠(yuan)不(bu)能滿意鋼(gang)鐵(tie)(tie)工(gong)業(ye)的(de)需求。國際市場上鐵(tie)(tie)礦(kuang)石價格(ge)(ge)接連(lian)幾年暴升,影響了我(wo)國鋼(gang)鐵(tie)(tie)工(gong)業(ye)的(de)健康開展(zhan)。近年來,我(wo)國科技人(ren)員(yuan)現已做了很多的(de)研討(tao)作業(ye),在銅(tong)渣改性歸納(na)收回合(he)格(ge)(ge)檔次的(de)鐵(tie)(tie)精(jing)礦(kuang)、鐵(tie)(tie)合(he)金及隸屬金屬方面(mian),現已取(qu)得了可(ke)喜成(cheng)果(guo)。因而,不(bu)難(nan)猜測(ce)銅(tong)鍛(duan)煉渣選(xuan)礦(kuang)技能將會有十分(fen)較(jiao)好(hao)的(de)使用遠(yuan)景。

我國渣選(xuan)礦(kuang)技(ji)能(neng)已進入全面開(kai)展階段,《銅鍛煉渣選(xuan)礦(kuang)》專著應運而(er)生(sheng),及時(shi)滿意了我國銅鍛煉開(kai)展的(de)理(li)論和(he)(he)學習的(de)需求,遭到銅鍛煉職業廣闊技(ji)能(neng)人員(yuan)和(he)(he)管理(li)人員(yuan)的(de)好評(ping)。

銅鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)(lian)渣(zha)(zha)選礦(kuang)技(ji)(ji)能(neng)現(xian)在(zai)首要使用于轉(zhuan)爐渣(zha)(zha)、電爐渣(zha)(zha)或二者的(de)(de)混合渣(zha)(zha)以(yi)及閃速熔煉(lian)(lian)爐渣(zha)(zha);渣(zha)(zha)選礦(kuang)后(hou)的(de)(de)尾渣(zha)(zha)單(dan)個企業(ye)憑(ping)仗區(qu)域優勢,以(yi)水(shui)泥(ni)填料方式(shi)出售給水(shui)泥(ni)廠(chang),完成了無尾化(hua)出產;但大都偏僻企業(ye)遭(zao)到區(qu)域約束,尾渣(zha)(zha)依然(ran)以(yi)固(gu)廢方式(shi)堆(dui)存(cun)。伴跟(gen)著國(guo)際銅冶(ye)金工業(ye)的(de)(de)開展(zhan)和(he)資(zi)源(yuan)日益貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)的(de)(de)緊張(zhang)局(ju)勢,人(ren)們更多地考慮了資(zi)源(yuan)使用程度、鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)(lian)經(jing)濟(ji)效(xiao)益和(he)人(ren)類(lei)生存(cun)環(huan)(huan)境等問(wen)題;我國(guo)是(shi)國(guo)際上人(ren)均占(zhan)有資(zi)源(yuan)最少的(de)(de)國(guo)家(jia),跟(gen)著我國(guo)經(jing)濟(ji)的(de)(de)昌盛和(he)騰飛,我國(guo)的(de)(de)資(zi)源(yuan)危機就(jiu)會越(yue)來(lai)越(yue)嚴峻(jun),對資(zi)源(yuan)化(hua)循環(huan)(huan)技(ji)(ji)能(neng)的(de)(de)需求就(jiu)會越(yue)來(lai)越(yue)火急。深入開展(zhan)銅鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)(lian)渣(zha)(zha)選礦(kuang)和(he)資(zi)源(yuan)化(hua)技(ji)(ji)能(neng)的(de)(de)研討與使用作(zuo)業(ye),將成為我國(guo)科技(ji)(ji)人(ren)員未來(lai)作(zuo)業(ye)的(de)(de)要點。銅鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)(lian)渣(zha)(zha)選礦(kuang)技(ji)(ji)能(neng)作(zuo)為銅渣(zha)(zha)貧(pin)(pin)化(hua)及資(zi)源(yuan)化(hua)技(ji)(ji)能(neng)的(de)(de)基礎(chu)學(xue)(xue)科,是(shi)銅鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)(lian)渣(zha)(zha)資(zi)源(yuan)化(hua)的(de)(de)核心技(ji)(ji)能(neng),學(xue)(xue)習和(he)把握(wo)銅鍛(duan)(duan)煉(lian)(lian)渣(zha)(zha)選礦(kuang)技(ji)(ji)能(neng),在(zai)加(jia)速開展(zhan)我國(guo)循環(huan)(huan)經(jing)濟(ji)、加(jia)強環(huan)(huan)境保護(hu)、削減資(zi)源(yuan)糟蹋和(he)增強國(guo)家(jia)實力方面(mian),將會發生十分深遠的(de)(de)影響(xiang)。

 

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