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我們的位置:首頁 - 新花城電線電纜講講海底電纜交聯聚乙烯絕緣(XLPE)的特點
發布時間:2024.01.12 新聞來源:珠江電纜_廣州花城珠江電纜有限公司 瀏覽次數:

 

交聯聚乙烯絕緣(XLPE)海(hai)(hai)(hai)底電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)開(kai)展(zhan)于上世紀(ji)80年代,大都用于220kV及以(yi)下電(dian)(dian)壓等級[1],其制(zhi)作(zuo)和(he)運轉經歷還遠不如充(chong)油海(hai)(hai)(hai)底電(dian)(dian)纜(lan).截止到(dao)現在(zai),電(dian)(dian)壓等級Z高(gao)的XLPE溝通海(hai)(hai)(hai)底電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)是耐克森(NEXANS)公司(si)正在(zai)為坐落挪威海(hai)(hai)(hai)的大型OrmenLange天然氣(qi)田(tian)設備的2.2km長(chang)的420kV4根(gen)單心海(hai)(hai)(hai)底電(dian)(dian)纜(lan).500kV溝通長(chang)間隔(ge)海(hai)(hai)(hai)底電(dian)(dian)纜(lan),現在(zai)運用的僅有(you)充(chong)油電(dian)(dian)纜(lan).

與(yu)充油(you)電(dian)纜(lan)比較,XLPE電(dian)纜(lan)具有以下長(chang)處:

①XLPE電纜(lan)是固體絕緣(yuan),不需雜亂的充油體系,不需要檢測(ce)油位、操(cao)控(kong)油壓,運轉費用低(di);

②XLPE電纜沒有鉛(qian)護套,曲折半徑小、質(zhi)量輕,可(ke)出產、敷設的長(chang)(chang)度更長(chang)(chang),且在敷設設備(bei)和運(yun)送時都要比充油電纜簡略(lve);

③XLPE海底電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)的(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)氣功能(neng)和(he)機(ji)械功能(neng)也都優(you)于(yu)(yu)充油電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan).正因如(ru)此,XLPE絕緣(yuan)海底電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)的(de)(de)開(kai)展有著更(geng)寬廣(guang)的(de)(de)遠景,但也有很多(duo)技術(shu)問題需要處(chu)理(li).一(yi)般(ban)的(de)(de)交聯(lian)聚乙烯電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)在(zai)直(zhi)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)作用下,電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)絕緣(yuan)中(zhong)的(de)(de)空間電(dian)(dian)荷(he)會在(zai)某處(chu)會集,然后構成此處(chu)部分場強(qiang)(qiang)過(guo)高而被擊穿.在(zai)絕緣(yuan)資(zi)料(liao)中(zhong)選用增加劑能(neng)夠減(jian)緩電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)絕緣(yuan)中(zhong)空間電(dian)(dian)荷(he)累積,使(shi)得交聯(lian)聚乙烯電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)能(neng)夠用于(yu)(yu)直(zhi)流(liu)高壓(ya)(ya)供電(dian)(dian).2002年,榜首根擠包型單(dan)心直(zhi)流(liu)海底電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)(輕(qing)型直(zhi)流(liu)電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan),瑞典(dian)ABB),電(dian)(dian)壓(ya)(ya)±150kV,長(chang)度40km,容(rong)量330MW,用于(yu)(yu)銜接紐約長(chang)島和(he)美國的(de)(de)康涅狄(di)格.這種直(zhi)流(liu)海底電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)選用3層聚合資(zi)料(liao)揉(rou)(rou)捏成單(dan)極性電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan)(lan),表里屏蔽層與絕緣(yuan)層一(yi)起揉(rou)(rou)捏,具(ju)有高強(qiang)(qiang)度、環(huan)保和(he)便(bian)于(yu)(yu)埋(mai)葬等長(chang)處(chu),適(shi)用于(yu)(yu)深海等惡(e)劣環(huan)境(jing)。

XLPE絕(jue)緣(yuan)直流海(hai)底電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜現Z高電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)壓可達(da)320kV溝通電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜絕(jue)緣(yuan)中(zhong)的等效(xiao)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容隨電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜長度增加(jia)而(er)增大(da)(da),在能量傳(chuan)輸過程中(zhong),等效(xiao)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容與電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源間不停地進行著充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)放電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),其充(chong)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流可到達(da)極大(da)(da)值而(er)影(ying)響正(zheng)常有(you)功負荷的傳(chuan)輸,所以溝通海(hai)底電(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)纜有(you)個理(li)論上的極限

傳(chuan)輸間(jian)(jian)隔(ge),多個跨海工程標明,該間(jian)(jian)隔(ge)約(yue)為40km[3],超越這個間(jian)(jian)隔(ge),選用溝(gou)通傳(chuan)輸電(dian)能就不(bu)具經(jing)濟(ji)性了.而直流(liu)電(dian)纜長(chang)度不(bu)受充電(dian)電(dian)流(liu)約(yue)束,無(wu)需無(wu)功補償設備(bei),制作設備(bei)簡潔,介(jie)損(sun)和導(dao)體損(sun)耗小,有著(zhu)杰出(chu)的(de)市(shi)場遠(yuan)景(jing).但高壓直流(liu)海底(di)電(dian)纜還(huan)有如空間(jian)(jian)電(dian)荷堆集機理(li)及其按捺辦法、直流(liu)電(dian)壓下(xia)的(de)絕緣老(lao)化機理(li)、新(xin)開發絕緣資料的(de)長(chang)時間(jian)(jian)穩定性,部(bu)分放電(dian)的(de)影響等(deng)很多問題有待研討處理(li)."

一般超(chao)高壓溝通海底電纜都(dou)是單(dan)心(xin)的,但由于3心(xin)溝通海底電纜能(neng)夠節約出產和(he)敷設的費(fei)用,所以大(da)截面、

高電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)等級的(de)3心(xin)XLPE溝通(tong)海底(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)也在逐步推廣(guang).2008年,耐克(ke)森公司(si)在加拿(na)大敷設了國際上榜首根電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)達245kV的(de)3心(xin)XLPE絕緣海底(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan).聚乙烯(PE)絕緣電(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)和EPR(乙丙橡(xiang)皮)絕緣電(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)乙丙橡(xiang)皮電(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)與(yu)XLPE電(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)(tgδ≤0.0005)比(bi)較(jiao),介(jie)損(sun)正(zheng)切值(zhi)tgδ、和介(jie)電(dian)(dian)(dian)常數(shu)ε都比(bi)較(jiao)大,但(dan)與(yu)聚乙烯電(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)比(bi)較(jiao)更能(neng)避免樹枝(zhi)及部分放電(dian)(dian)(dian),一(yi)般只用于中等電(dian)(dian)(dian)壓(ya)的(de)海底(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan).到(dao)現在為止(zhi),Z高等級的(de)乙丙橡(xiang)皮海底(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan)是2001年設備(bei)在意大利威(wei)尼斯(si)-穆拉諾-梅斯(si)特(Venezia-Murano-Mestre)的(de)150kV海底(di)電(dian)(dian)(dian)纜(lan)(lan)(lan).

充氣式電纜

充(chong)(chong)氣式(shi)海(hai)底(di)電纜(lan)在(zai)(zai)結(jie)構上與充(chong)(chong)油電纜(lan)很類似,也運(yun)用(yong)預先浸漬好的(de)(de)(de)紙帶(dai)做絕緣(yuan),再(zai)充(chong)(chong)入帶(dai)壓(ya)(ya)力的(de)(de)(de)氮氣,帶(dai)壓(ya)(ya)力的(de)(de)(de)氣體填充(chong)(chong)了(le)紙帶(dai)間的(de)(de)(de)空地,提高了(le)擊(ji)穿電壓(ya)(ya).充(chong)(chong)氣式(shi)海(hai)底(di)電纜(lan)可用(yong)于(yu)(yu)交直(zhi)流輸電,它比(bi)充(chong)(chong)油式(shi)電纜(lan)更(geng)適合于(yu)(yu)較長的(de)(de)(de)海(hai)底(di)電纜(lan)網(wang).但(dan)由于(yu)(yu)需在(zai)(zai)深水(shui)下(xia)運(yun)用(yong)高氣壓(ya)(ya)操作,故此增加了(le)規(gui)劃(hua)電纜(lan)及(ji)其配件的(de)(de)(de)困難,該電纜(lan)一般限于(yu)(yu)水(shui)深為(wei)300m以內(nei).

海底電纜的(de)相關技術問(wen)題(ti)

海底電纜的防水

當機械應力或(huo)外力構成電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)護(hu)套(tao)(tao)(tao)及絕(jue)(jue)(jue)緣損害(hai)、接頭(tou)損壞時,潮(chao)氣或(huo)水分(fen)(fen)(fen)會沿著電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)縱(zong)向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)和(he)(he)徑向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)空隙(xi)(xi)浸入,下降絕(jue)(jue)(jue)緣的(de)(de)(de)電(dian)(dian)氣強度,因而大都高(gao)壓海底電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)都具(ju)(ju)有(you)避免(mian)水分(fen)(fen)(fen)侵略的(de)(de)(de)縱(zong)向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)、徑向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)防(fang)水辦(ban)法(fa).徑向(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)辦(ban)法(fa)首要是(shi)在(zai)絕(jue)(jue)(jue)緣屏(ping)蔽(bi)和(he)(he)金(jin)(jin)屬(shu)屏(ping)蔽(bi)層外面繞包半導電(dian)(dian)阻水脹(zhang)大帶(dai),在(zai)金(jin)(jin)屬(shu)屏(ping)蔽(bi)層外面增加(jia)金(jin)(jin)屬(shu)防(fang)水層即金(jin)(jin)屬(shu)護(hu)套(tao)(tao)(tao),中壓電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)電(dian)(dian)場(chang)強度相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)對較低,一(yi)般運用鋁塑復合(he)護(hu)套(tao)(tao)(tao),也有(you)僅用聚(ju)(ju)合(he)物(wu)護(hu)套(tao)(tao)(tao)的(de)(de)(de),高(gao)壓電(dian)(dian)纜(lan)則選用鉛(qian)、鋁、不銹鋼(gang)的(de)(de)(de)金(jin)(jin)屬(shu)密(mi)封套(tao)(tao)(tao).聚(ju)(ju)合(he)物(wu)護(hu)套(tao)(tao)(tao)具(ju)(ju)有(you)防(fang)水性,但卻有(you)必(bi)定的(de)(de)(de)吸水率,這是(shi)由(you)于其(qi)結(jie)(jie)構首要是(shi)由(you)結(jie)(jie)晶(jing)相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)和(he)(he)無定形相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)組成的(de)(de)(de)半結(jie)(jie)晶(jing)高(gao)聚(ju)(ju)物(wu).結(jie)(jie)晶(jing)相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)結(jie)(jie)構緊湊,無定形相(xiang)(xiang)(xiang)中的(de)(de)(de)分(fen)(fen)(fen)子(zi)擺放疏(shu)松,分(fen)(fen)(fen)子(zi)間(jian)存在(zai)較大的(de)(de)(de)空隙(xi)(xi).在(zai)交變電(dian)(dian)場(chang)的(de)(de)(de)作用下,極性的(de)(de)(de)水分(fen)(fen)(fen)子(zi)不斷來回翻轉,能夠透過空隙(xi)(xi)和(he)(he)晶(jing)界(jie)缺點處滲透到絕(jue)(jue)(jue)緣資(zi)料中.選用聚(ju)(ju)合(he)物(wu)護(hu)套(tao)(tao)(tao)時,護(hu)套(tao)(tao)(tao)里要加(jia)具(ju)(ju)有(you)吸水作用的(de)(de)(de)阻水劑.

縱向(xiang)阻水首(shou)要選用①壓緊型(xing)線心;②在導線之間和纜(lan)心屏蔽區增加阻水性物(wu)質(zhi),阻斷水分在纜(lan)心中的(de)分散通道(dao).縱向(xiang)阻水選用阻水粉填充(chong)作用好,它(ta)的(de)吸(xi)(xi)水量為本身(shen)的(de)幾十倍(bei)甚至(zhi)幾千倍(bei),吸(xi)(xi)水強(qiang)度大、脹(zhang)大率高,吸(xi)(xi)水后可敏捷脹(zhang)大構成凝膠狀(zhuang)物(wu)質(zhi),堵塞滲水通道(dao),停止水分和潮(chao)氣的(de)進一步分散和延伸,使(shi)受潮(chao)電纜(lan)的(de)長度降到Z低。

 

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